Josip Hoster1ORCID logo 0000-0002-3944-7219 and Aleksandar Sušić2

1University of Applied Sciences
  Karlovac, Croatia
2University of Zagreb - Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture
  Zagreb, Croatia

INDECS 18(4), 501-515, 2020
DOI 10.7906/indecs.18.4.9
Full text available here.

Received: 28th September 2020.
Accepted: 21st October 2020.
Regular article


The objective of this article is to review the critical conditions of a single beam ladder using the temporospatial ladder stability analysis with integrated biomechanical considerations. From the ergonomic perspective, the non-occupational incidents may involve even more critical parameters than the occupational incidents. This is because the occupational users are assumed to have necessary psychophysical abilities, experience, training and awareness of appropriate standards and regulations, and are moreover familiar with proper ladder settings and their utilization, unlike most of the non-occupational users. Such a perspective supports our safety concern about ladder use, especially for non-occupational environments, what is in focus of this article.

Computational modelling of expected ladder ascent and usage were exploited, with taking into consideration the real time kinetics and kinematics, anthropometry of the climber and variable contact friction factors. The results are shown in a parametric diagram, that revises and confirms the guideline for setting the ladder slant at 75,5°. Then, regardless of the climber's mass, the intensity of the ascent (period or cycle duration, hence the extremes in acceleration), and of the low coefficient of friction at the ground contact, the climb is safe.

Created computational ladder model and representative equations are validated, henceforth the created computational model is attributed the ability to revise the ladder use recommendations. Created and validated model is expected to makes possible a further extension of the set of the considered and analysed ladder usage parameters. Hence, inclusivity of wider range of parameters of ladder utilization and design is expected to reveal other underestimated or neglected factors that might appear as critical ones.

single ladder, ladder climbing, ergonomic and biomechanical parameters, safety against sliding, safety against separation, ladder stability

JEL:I12, I18

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